High-yield and high-quality fresh corn cultivation method

1 Requirements for the environment of the place of origin

Fresh corn planting requires fresh air, fertile soil, deep tillage layer, strong soil fertility and water retention capacity, less agricultural pollution sources, farmland irrigation and drainage facilities, and irrigation and drainage. The environmental quality conditions of the production area should conform to the environmental quality standards of green food production areas (ny/t391-2000), and should be applied scientifically in strict accordance with the guidelines for the use of green food pesticides (ny/t393-2000) and the guidelines for the use of green food fertilizers (ny/t394-2000). Pesticide and fertilizer to increase the yield and quality of fresh corn.

2 variety selection

In production, fresh corn is mainly divided into three types: ordinary sweet corn, super sweet corn and waxy corn. The young corn is mainly listed as fruit and vegetable or quick-frozen fresh corn. Super sweet corn and waxy corn varieties should be used. . In the cultivation of super-sweet corn and waxy corn, attention should be paid to the reasonable matching of early, middle and late-maturing varieties, and the staged harvesting will be listed one after another, thus improving economic benefits. At present, the fresh corn varieties suitable for planting in Shanghai are mainly Huazhen and Jinyin 818 super sweet corn, Sujing No. 2, Caitianjing 2 and Caitianjing No. 5 waxy corn. In order to ensure the quality of fresh corn products and prevent different types of corn from being smashed together, fresh corn should be planted in isolation from ordinary corn or other types of corn. Space isolation and time isolation can be used, but the space isolation effect is the best. Space isolation requires fresh corn to be more than 400m away from ordinary corn planting distance.

3 fine soil preparation, base fertilizer

3.1 Site preparation

The germination and topping ability of fresh corn seeds is weak, and field cultivation with deep soil layer, good fertility permeability and convenient irrigation and drainage should be selected. In order to meet the requirements of strong seedlings, we should deepen the sunburn before sowing, make the soil loose, and create a deep, loose, fine and fat soil environment to ensure that the seedlings are quick and tidy after sowing. The building is wide (continuous ditch) about 220cm, and each row is planted in 3 rows.

3.2 Re-application of base fertilizer, applying sufficient fertilizer

Before planting, apply the base fertilizer, apply Lijiang brand organic fertilizer 500kg and BB fertilizer 50kg as base fertilizer every 667m2, then apply BB fertilizer 10kg as seed fertilizer, and then cover soil 4~5em sowing. The base fertilizer should account for about 60% of the total fertilizer. The application of organic fertilizer can enhance the fertility, enhance the soil's ability to maintain fertilizer and water retention, promote the early-stage and medium-term stability of fresh corn, and effectively improve the quality of fresh corn ears.

4 suitable sowing

4.1 Seed treatment Seed treatment before sowing, improve seed germination rate and seedling rate, reduce pest and disease damage. Due to the high content of sugar in fresh corn, the seeds are easily damaged by underground pests in the soil, resulting in lack of seedlings. Therefore, it is best to carry out seeding by means of seed dressing and germination. Select the full and robust seeds, first dip them with water for 24 hours, remove them and wash them with a broad-spectrum insecticide 10% chlorfenapyr suspension (digested). (Add a small amount of water to attach the pesticide to the seeds) Put the seeds into the container, spray the appropriate amount of warm water of 40-45 °C on the surface of the seeds, and then align them at 25-28 °C for 24 hours. When the buds are white, they can be sown to prevent the buds from being too long.

4.2 Reasonable thinning

According to the characteristics of fresh corn varieties, climate characteristics, management level and requirements of ear products, the appropriate planting density should be determined. Generally, the spring sowing density is slightly lower and the autumn sowing density is slightly higher. Wide-line planting and reasonable close planting are beneficial to improve the ventilation and light-transmission conditions in the field, improve the group uniformity, consolidate the effective ear, promote the weight change of the ear, and enhance the commodity value of fresh corn. Generally, the planting distance is 70em, the plant spacing is 26-28em, and 3300-3500 plants are planted per 667m2. Due to the difference in variety and cultivation level, the general flat-type varieties are planted 3300-3500 plants per 667m2, and the planting density of compact varieties can be appropriately increased.

4.3 Suitable sowing

Early broadcast and early harvest are effective measures to improve the competitiveness of the fresh corn market. The sowing time of fresh corn should be considered according to the climate season, the characteristics of the variety, combined with the supply time of the fresh corn market, the busy season of the production season of the quick-frozen processing plant and the pre-harvest period. The earliest sowing date in spring should be the average daily temperature. Stabilization begins at 120tc (Songjiang area is around April 6th). If mulching is used, it can be lodted early, and film seedling transplanting can be 13~15d earlier. The latest sowing period in autumn must ensure that the average daily temperature during the harvest period is stable above 18~c. The sowing method can be carried out by live seeding or seedling transplanting. The live broadcast is usually carried out by ditching or spotting. The sowing depth is 4~5cm. One seed is planted at each point (point). The seedling transplanting is conducive to early maturity. In the 2 to 3 leaf stage, soil transplanting. In addition, 10% of the ready seedlings need to be prepared for the live field. Fresh corn kernels are thinner, their germination is weak, and the ability to top soil is poor. When planting, it should be properly sowed. The soil moisture of 3-4 cm in depth is 60%-70% of the water holding capacity of the field. Spray the herbicide on the day after sowing, use 96% Jinduer emulsifiable herbicide 509 per 667m2, add 400ml of water and stir while mixing, mix the kneading surface and the ditch surface evenly with sprayer, and weed the herb to prevent seedling The occurrence of grass damage.

5 field management

5.1 Timely seedlings, early seedlings

When the fresh corn has 3-4 leaves, it is necessary to step on the field to check the seedlings, timely transplant the seedlings, and move the prepared seedlings to the missing seedlings. When transplanting seedlings, seedlings should be soiled, watered after planting, and the seedlings should be moved early. Fresh corn has the characteristics of tillering. In order to ensure the yield and grade of the ear, the right to be beaten should be removed as early as possible. In the 3-5 leaf stage, shallow cultivating loose soil and topdressing seedling fertilizer should be carried out, and 7-8 kg of urea should be applied per 667 m2 to promote the growth of fresh corn seedlings.

5.2 Grasp the medium-term management

When the 7th-8th leaf is unfolded, the fresh corn enters the stage of male and female growth and differentiation, and the panicle fertilizer should be applied in time. Generally, 20 kg of BB fertilizer is applied per 667 m2, and the amount of fertilizer used accounts for about 30% of the total topdressing amount. The field with long potential difference can be applied as early as possible to promote balanced growth of fresh corn. The booting stage is the key period for determining the size of the ear. Adequate fertilizer and light can promote the growth of fresh corn in the middle and late stages, reduce the top of the ear, and enlarge the leaf area of ​​the upper functional leaves. Fresh corn growth during the whole booting stage requires more water. The appropriate field water holding capacity is 70%-80%. According to the weather conditions and soil moisture changes, irrigation and drainage measures should be taken in time to ensure the healthy growth of fresh corn at the booting stage.

When the base of fresh corn is 2-3, the length is fixed (the spring corn is about 45d after sowing, and the autumn corn is about 35d after sowing). At this time, the tassel enters the stage of floret differentiation, and the ear enters the stage of growth cone elongation. Fresh corn grows into the big trumpet period. At this time, it is necessary to reapply the panicle fertilizer, and apply 30 kg of BB fertilizer per 667 m2, which accounts for about 60% of the total amount of topdressing, which can promote the differentiation of small spikelets and prolong the leaf function. In the period, we will strive to increase the yield of fresh corn.

5.3 Pollination and emasculation

When the fresh corn grows to the stage of pollination and seeding, it is necessary to pay attention to artificially assisted pollination and emasculation work, improve the pregnancy rate of the ear and promote the fullness of the grain. Spring and autumn corn in Shanghai often encounters rainy season and autumn rain during the loose powder period. When it encounters continuous rainy days, it should strengthen artificial assisted pollination. To reduce nutrient consumption, the tassels are cut off after pollination. When most of the fresh corn enters the heading stage, a multi-ear phenomenon occurs, and the extra spikelets should be stripped in time. This is a key measure to improve the yield and ear quality of fresh corn, which can enhance the growth of fresh corn. vitality.

6 green control pests and diseases to ensure corn quality

The main diseases of corn in our district are corn spot disease, small spot disease, rust, ear rot, etc. The main pests are underground pests, aphids, corn borer, Spodoptera litura, and beet armyworm. In order to ensure the normal growth and yield quality of fresh corn, we must follow the plant protection policy of prevention and comprehensive prevention, firmly establish the concept of pest control of green plant protection, adopt various effective production management measures, and strictly control the occurrence of fresh corn pests and diseases. harm.

6.1 Agricultural control

6.1.1 Selection of high-yield, disease-resistant and insect-resistant varieties According to the occurrence of fresh corn pests and diseases in our town over the years, the varieties with poor resistance to pests and diseases are gradually eliminated, and varieties with stable growth, high yield and high quality, and strong resistance to pests and diseases are selected. Reasonable rotation, fresh corn is not suitable for continuous cropping, should be rational rotation with rice, vegetables and other crops, can reduce pests and weeds, improve soil fertility, and promote the growth of fresh corn.

6.1.2 Implementation of standardized cultivation of fresh corn should be carried out in north and south rows and wide-row narrow planting, which can improve the ventilation and light transmission conditions in the corn field, reduce the humidity in the field, and create a healthy growth for fresh corn, which is not conducive to corn pests and diseases. The field microclimate conditions that breed.

6.1.3 Scientific and rational use of fertilizers should be applied with organic fertilizers and phosphorus and potassium fertilizers, suitable topdressing and cultivating soil, promoting deep rooting of fresh corn, thick stems, and enhancing the resistance to disease and insects and stress resistance of fresh corn.

6.1.4 Keep the pastoral clean, reduce the initial infestation source, remove the corn diseased leaves at the right time, do a good job of artificial cultivating and weeding, and clear the diseased leaves and weeds out of the corn field in time, reduce and cut off the pests and parasites, and effectively reduce the disease. Insect breeding base.

6.2 physical control

Using the characteristics of harmful insects such as phototaxis and color development, fresh corn field uses yellow plate to trap aphids, install black light, frequency vibrating insecticidal lamp and sexual attractant to attract insects, kill insects, reduce the use of chemical pesticides, and effectively protect fresh The production environment of eating corn improves the quality of fresh corn products. 6.3 Biological control

Actively protect and utilize natural enemies to control pests and diseases. The use of spring raymycin, agricultural streptomycin, Bacillus thuringiensis (bt), matrine, azadirachtin and other biological pesticides to control pests and diseases.

6.4 Chemical control

6.4.1 Diseases Strengthen the prediction of pests and diseases, master the dynamics of fresh corn pests and diseases, and timely carry out chemical control, usually in the early stage of the disease. Rust can be uniformly sprayed with 6% spring serotonin WP 300 times, large spot disease, small spot disease, gray spot disease can be uniformly sprayed with Amisida 1000-1500 times.

6.4.2 Pests Fresh corn is highly susceptible to insects such as corn borer, Spodoptera litura, and aphids. Underground pests such as small ground tigers can be seeded with 10% chlorfenapyr suspension (digested) before planting fresh corn. The corn borer can be treated with 150g of Bacillus thuringiensis 150g, and it can be controlled in the mouth of fresh corn. It can also be used in the end of fresh corn leaf, with 0.5kg/g~10 billion/g of Beauveria bassiana 0.5kg. , mixed into 5kg granules, into the heart, have a good control effect. Spodoptera litura, beet armyworm, can be used for hitting (150g/l indoxasu suspension) 10-18ml, with water 3500-4000 times liquid evenly sprayed; can also be used in the green one (1 billionpib/ml Nuclear polyhedrosis virus suspension) 100-150ml, with water 800-1200 times liquid evenly sprayed, or with Pu Zun (5% chlorantraniliprole suspending agent) 55ml, with water 1300 times even spray control, several agents Alternate use of control effect is better.

7 timely harvest and listing

Fresh corn is harvested at the end of the season. Due to the different seasons of fresh corn planting, the mature and suitable harvesting period are different. Generally, the spring corn is 22-24d after pollination, and the autumn corn is 24~26d after pollination. The fresh corn silk is withered and blackened, and the top of the spike is full. The loquat leaves become soft. At this time, the fresh corn ear kernels have high sugar content and good quality, and are most suitable for harvesting and marketing.

Production should pay attention to the best harvesting period of fresh corn. Premature and late harvest will affect the quality and yield of fresh corn, and will be listed with the harvest. If the fresh corn is harvested and sold by quick-frozen processing, it should be steamed with water and not boiled to avoid deterioration in quality. And through rapid freezing processing packaging, to ensure the quality of fresh corn, extend the market supply period, increase farmers' income, and improve the economic benefits of professional cooperatives.

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